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      Exploration of the regularity of facial modifications with age and establishment of a method for determining age ranges of the Han ethnicity of China in early adulthood

      Wang Fang;Zhang Jizong;Yang Chaopeng;Department of Criminal Science and Technology,People's Public Security University of China;Department of Forensic Pathology and Injury,Institute of Forensic Science,Ministry of Public Security;  
      Objective:The purpose of this study was to establish a credible database of facial measurements on a population of early adulthood(18-32 years) and to set up some discriminant equations in order to determine age ranges of individuals depicted on photos or videos and develop the techniques of age estimation.Methods:Standardized facial photos of 275 male and 275 female subjects,aged between 18 and 32 were randomly collected for the present experiment.All the subjects come from China.In this study,the facial photos in the frontal view were divided into 5 groups(18-years,21-years,24-years,27-years,30-years).8 measurements were directly extracted using the Adobe Photoshop CS6 "Ruler Tool" from the images and used in 14 indices.Two-Way factorial analysis of variance was performed on comparison of all indices.Results:Of all the indices,10 indices showed a significant difference in chosen age group and they were pu-pu/ch-ch,se-sn/pu-pu,ex-ex/ch-ch,en-en/se-sn,en-en/ch-ch,al-al/ch-ch,al-al/se-sn,al-al/se-sto,se-sn/zy-zy and se-sto/zy-zy.The 7 indices which decreased with age were pu-pu/ch-ch,ex-ex/ch-ch,en-en/se-sn,en-en/ch-ch,al-al/ch-ch,al-al/se-sn and al-al/se-sto,whereas those 3indices that increased with age were se-sn/pu-pu,se-sto/zy-zy and se-sn/zy-zy.Besides,se-sn/zy-zy increased with age only up to 27- years.Among the above 10 indices that changed with age,6 indices were significantly larger in males than in females,with a significant effect of sex(P0.05).The discriminant analysis denoted that 28.5%cases were correctly classified into the respective age group.After splitting the images by sex,the probability of correctly classified cases in the respective group were as follows:34.2%for men,34.5%for women.Conclusion:The findings serve as an indication and may be applied in age estimation on photos and be beneficial to forensic investigation.However,more work needs to be done in order to verify the reliability of this study's findings on a larger sample.
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